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Using (Apache) NuttX USERLED Subsystem

Alan C Assis February 19, 2024
In the previous article (https://embeddedrelated.com/showarticle/1623.php) we saw how to use GPIOs on NuttX testing on RaspberryPi Pico as example. In that article we used the GPIO output to control an LED, but there is a better way to do that. Of course, NuttX has an LED subsystem similar to Linux LED subsystem: it is called USERLED. Today we will see how to control LEDs using NuttX's USERLED subsystem.

The main advantage of using the USERLED subsystem instead of controlling the LEDs...


3D printing for embedded development

Ido Gendel February 19, 2024

Used mostly for creating little plastic objects, the desktop 3D printer is not an obvious addition to the embedded developer's toolbox. However, if you're looking for more reasons to get one, or already have one that's mostly gathering dust, here are a couple of embedded-related ways to get more value out of it.


Unraveling the Enigma: Object Detection in the World of Pixels

Charu Pande February 8, 2024

Exploring the realm of embedded systems co-design for object recognition, this blog navigates the convergence of hardware and software in revolutionizing industries. Delving into real-time image analysis and environmental sensing, the discussion highlights advanced object detection and image segmentation techniques. With insights into Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) decoding pixel data and autonomously extracting features, the blog emphasizes their pivotal role in modern computer vision. Practical examples, including digit classification using TensorFlow and Keras on the MNIST dataset, underscore the power of CNNs. Through industry insights and visualization aids, the blog unveils a tapestry of innovation, charting a course towards seamless interaction between intelligent embedded systems and the world.


There's a State in This Machine!

Massimiliano Pagani February 5, 20243 comments

An introduction to state machines and their implementation. Working from an intuitive definition of the state machine concept, we will start with a straightforward implementation then we evolve it into a more robust and engineered solution.


How Embedded Linux is used in Spacecrafts !

George Emad February 1, 20244 comments

This article dives into the application of Linux in spacecraft, examining the challenges it poses and proposing potential solutions. Real-life examples will be discussed, while also addressing the drawbacks of employing Linux in safety-critical missions.


Getting Started With Zephyr: Bluetooth Low Energy

Mohammed Billoo January 29, 2024

In this blog post, I show how to enable BLE support in a Zephyr application. First, I show the necessary configuration options in Kconfig. Then, I show how to use the Zephyr functions and macros to create a custom service and characteristic for a contrived application.


++i and i++ : what’s the difference?

Colin Walls January 25, 20242 comments

Although the ++ and -- operators are well known, there are facets of their operation and implementation that are less familiar to many developers.


Using GPIO in (Apache) NuttX RTOS

Alan C Assis January 21, 20243 comments

In the previous article (https://embeddedrelated.com/showarticle/1610.php) we saw how to compile and run NuttX on three low cost boards (RaspberryPi Pico, ESP32-Devkit and STM32F4Discovery). Today we will see how to use GPIO pins and read and write logic level signals from/to the MCU pins.

Everybody knows that blinking a LED is the "Hello World" program of embedded system engineer. Controlling a GPIO we can do exactly that! Although it is important to know that NuttX also has a LED...


A Sneak Peek at the 2024 Embedded Online Conference

Jacob Beningo January 19, 2024

The embedded systems industry is evolving at a rapid pace. Just a few years ago, most embedded products were disconnected systems that used bare-metal scheduling techniques. Today, the drive to connect devices and add intelligence at the edge is revolutionizing how we build embedded products. The only way to stay current and not get left behind is to learn and network with colleagues and industry experts continuously.

This year, the 2024 Embedded Online Conference is...


The Asimov Protocol

Ido Gendel January 4, 2024

While the Internet is choke-full of explanations of basic data communication protocols, very little is said about the higher levels of packing, formatting, and exchanging information in a useful and practical way. This less-charted land is still fraught with strange problems, whose solutions may be found in strange places – in this example, a very short, 60 years old Science Fiction story.


Introduction to Microcontrollers - Beginnings

Mike Silva August 20, 201314 comments

Welcome to this Introduction to Microcontroller Programming tutorial series. If you are looking to learn the basics of embedded programming for microcontrollers (and a bit of embedded hardware design as well), I hope these tutorials will help you along that journey. These are my first postings here, and I am writing this tutorial series because over the years I have seen countless newbies asking the same questions and tripping over the same stumbling blocks, and I thought I might be able to...


MSP430 Launchpad Tutorial - Part 2 - Interrupts and timers

Enrico Garante June 17, 201342 comments

What is an "interrupt"? It is a signal that informs our MCU that a certain event has happened, causing the interruption of the normal flow of the main program and the execution of an "interrupt routine", that handles the event and takes a specified action.

Interrupts are essential to avoid wasting the processor's valuable time in polling loops, waiting for external events (in fact they are used in Real-Time Operating Systems,


VHDL tutorial - A practical example - part 3 - VHDL testbench

Gene Breniman June 25, 20118 comments

In part 1 of this series we focused on the hardware design, including some of the VHDL definitions of the I/O characteristics of the CPLD part.  In part 2, we described the VHDL logic of the CPLD for this design.  In part 3, we will show the entire VHDL design and the associated tests used to prove that we have, in fact, designed what we started out to design.

First, let's pull all of the pieces of the prior design together into a...


Analyzing the Linker Map file with a little help from the ELF and the DWARF

Govind Mukundan December 27, 201522 comments

When you're writing firmware, there always comes a time when you need to check the resources consumed by your efforts - perhaps because you're running out of RAM or Flash or you want to optimize something. The map file generated by your linker is a useful tool to aid in the resource analysis. I wanted to filter and sort the data generated in an interactive way so I wrote a C# WinForms application that reads the data from the map and presents it in a list view (using the awesome


MSP430 LaunchPad Tutorial - Part 4 - UART Transmission

Enrico Garante July 3, 201320 comments

Today we are going to learn how to communicate using UART with the Launchpad. For this purpose I will replace the default microcontroller that comes with the board with the MSP430G2553. It is the most powerful device in the MSP430 Value Line and it comes with an integrated hardware UART module, along with 16 Kb of Flash memory, 512 bytes of SRAM and an 8-channel, 10 bit ADC.

UART communication can be useful when dealing with sensors: as a basic example, we could...


How FPGAs work, and why you'll buy one

Yossi Kreinin June 20, 201315 comments

Today, pretty much everyone has a CPU, a DSP and a GPU, buried somewhere in their PC, phone, car, etc. Most don't know or care that they bought any of these, but they did.

Will everyone, at some future point, also buy an FPGA? The market size of FPGAs today is about 1% of the annual global semiconductor sales (~$3B vs ~$300B). Will FPGA eventually...


Understanding and Preventing Overflow (I Had Too Much to Add Last Night)

Jason Sachs December 4, 2013

Happy Thanksgiving! Maybe the memory of eating too much turkey is fresh in your mind. If so, this would be a good time to talk about overflow.

In the world of floating-point arithmetic, overflow is possible but not particularly common. You can get it when numbers become too large; IEEE double-precision floating-point numbers support a range of just under 21024, and if you go beyond that you have problems:

for k in [10, 100, 1000, 1020, 1023, 1023.9, 1023.9999, 1024]: try: ...

How to Read a Power MOSFET Datasheet

Jason Sachs September 15, 201514 comments

One of my pet peeves is when my fellow engineers misinterpret component datasheets. This happened a few times recently in separate instances, all involving power MOSFETs. So it’s time for me to get on my soapbox. Listen up!

I was going to post an article on how to read component datasheets in general. But MOSFETs are a good place to start, and are a little more specific. I’m not the first person to write something about how to read datasheets; here are some other good...


Adventures in Signal Processing with Python

Jason Sachs June 23, 201311 comments

Author’s note: This article was originally called Adventures in Signal Processing with Python (MATLAB? We don’t need no stinkin' MATLAB!) — the allusion to The Treasure of the Sierra Madre has been removed, in deference to being a good neighbor to The MathWorks. While I don’t make it a secret of my dislike of many aspects of MATLAB — which I mention later in this article — I do hope they can improve their software and reduce the price. Please note this...


MSP430 Launchpad Tutorial - Part 1 - Basics

Enrico Garante June 14, 201320 comments

TI's LaunchPad is a complete MSP430 development environment: all you have to do is download and install CCS IDE (login required), connect your G2231-ready LaunchPad to your computer with the included mini-usb cable, and you are ready to code!

Texas Instrument MSP430 LaunchPad

So, let's see how to start a new project in Code Composer Studio. This IDE is derived from Eclipse, so if you used it before you shouldn't have much problems.

We'll write a simple program that will...


Call for Bloggers!

Stephane Boucher July 12, 2023

Are you passionate about embedded systems? Do you have valuable insights, tips, or stories to share with the embedded community? Do you want to reach a large and engaged audience of embedded enthusiasts and professionals? We are currently looking at adding a few more inspired writers to our team of bloggers.


Free Sessions @ the 2023 Embedded Online Conference

Stephane Boucher April 21, 2023

Although the 2023 Embedded Online Conference will officially start only on Monday 04/24, today we are pre-releasing all Theatre Talks and Demos in order to give attendees a headstart over the weekend on a very busy program.

The good news is, you don't need a paid registration to access theatre talks and demos.  All you have to do is create an account on the EOC website and skip the payment part.  

Here are the 37 sessions that you can watch for...


Back from Embedded World 2023

Stephane Boucher March 23, 20233 comments

It was great to be back in Nuremberg for Embedded World after three long years. The trade show is probably the most significant event in the embedded systems industry, and it was a relief to see that it has survived the pandemic with more than 900 vendors exhibiting.

I recorded this video on the very first day when the doors opened.  What you see in the video is probably 10% or less of the full show floor.  I am always impressed by the size of...


What to See at Embedded World 2023

Stephane Boucher March 6, 2023

Embedded World 2023 is just around the corner, and I am thrilled to be attending this year's edition in Nuremberg, Germany. The last time I was there was three years ago, and the world was on the cusp of a major pandemic. It was a surreal experience as many booths and exhibits were empty and cordoned off by security tape due to last-minute cancellations. It was clear that something big was happening. 

But with more than 900 vendors exhibiting this year, I'm glad to see that Embedded...


Favorite Software AND Hardware Tools for Embedded Systems Development

Stephane Boucher October 5, 2022

Last year, at the Embedded Online Conference, we interviewed the speakers and asked them what were some of their favorite software and hardware tools for Embedded development.  

We aggregated all their answers in one insightful video that you can watch here.

Although you should really watch the video in order to get the full picture, I've compiled the following non-exhaustive list for the fun of it (again, I cannot overstate enough how much valuable...


A New Related Site!

Stephane Boucher September 22, 20222 comments

We are delighted to announce the launch of the very first new Related site in 15 years!  The new site will be dedicated to the trendy and quickly growing field of Machine Learning and will be called - drum roll please - MLRelated.com.

We think MLRelated fits perfectly well within the “Related” family, with:

  • the fast growth of TinyML, which is a topic of great interest to the EmbeddedRelated community
  • the use of Machine/Deep Learning in Signal Processing applications, which is of...

New Promo Video for the 2022 Embedded Online Conference

Stephane Boucher April 19, 2022

Less than a week to go before the conference! Check out our 2022 Embedded Online Conference promo video, featuring (in order of appearance) Helen Leigh, Peter McLaughlin, Jack Ganssle, Tyler Hoffman, Steve Branam, Colin O'Flynn, Miro Samek, Henk Muller, Jacob Beningo, Harrison Donahue, Kate Stewart, Clive (Max) Maxfield, Don Wilcher, Adam Taylor, and Jean Labrosse.

If you haven't registered for the conference yet, please consider doing so today.  Make sure to use the...


2022 Embedded Online Conference - Final Push!

Stephane Boucher April 8, 2022

With the Embedded Online Conference only a couple of weeks away, we are now doing a final push to ensure that as many engineers as possible who could benefit from the conference are aware of it. 

If you'd like to help us spread the word, not only will you make our day, but you'll also earn a chance to win one of TWO Saleae Logic Pro 8.     

Prize: TWO Saleae Logic Pro 8Raffle...

The 2021 DSP/ML Online Conference

Stephane Boucher September 29, 2021

The 2021 DSP/ML Online Conference is just around the corner and this year again, the program is packed with opportunities to learn. 

By registering for the conference, not only will you have full access to all talks, workshops, and Q&A sessions at this year's event, but you'll also gain instant access to all talks from last year's edition.  

We've asked the speakers to tell me a few words about their sessions, here are some of the answers we've...


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